A reinforcing and/or stabilizing element of an architectural frame. Stained glass windows are fitted with pieces of colored glass, which often depict a picture or scene. A form of Baroque architecture that evolved in France during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610-43), Louis XIV (1643-1714), and Louis XV (1714-74). In classical architecture, series of urns and continuous or repeated swags of garlands are common decorative motifs. A manner of setting door knobs in place. An exceptionally tall portion of a building. The principal enclosed area of a Greek temple, containing the cult statue of god or goddess. Four-sided stones – usually porous – are framed by thin, red bricks, the plinths. A window with two sashes that move independently of each other. Saltbox roofs are common to the architecture of Colonial New England. The oldest octagonal church is the katholikon of the Monastery of Ossios Loukas in Phocis (1011). Shallow, vertical grooves in the shaft of a column or pilaster. The BFE is the minimum elevation, per FEMA, at which new construction must be built. The room at the rear of a Greek temple, behind the temple. Though you might not have your heart set on a certain type, knowing a few basic architectural designs will help you build a vocabulary to properly express what it is you really want. Elizabethan architecture was revived in the United States in the early 20th century. Please be sure to include an email address in your billing information so that we may keep you informed of activities and events. A decorative triangular piece situated over a portico, door, window, fireplace, etc. Sliding doors are popular in such a plan, as are central living rooms. Architecture ABC's 10 questions Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Apr 24 15. ​A table like structure for the celebration of the Sacraments in a Christian church; for sacrifice or offerings in antiquity. Played 531 times. A roof covered with straw, which is layered so as to shed rain quickly and effectively. The front facade of a building contains the building’s main entrance, the rear facade is the building’s rear exterior wall, and the side facades are a building’s side exterior walls. structure with downwardly and upwardly curved surfaces. The newly baptized dressed in white received the chrism by the bishop in the chrismarion, the room north of the photisterion where from he entered the church in order to attend the mass in front of the Holy Bema for the first time. Early stoas were open at the entrance with columns, usually of the. shared throughout a common people. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. Figure 1 illustrates a typical variation of ORACLE's memory and process structures; some of the memory structures and processes in this diagram are discussed in the following section. See eclecticism. Gingerbreading often took the form of scalloped or zig-zag-edged clapboards, which were often painted in contrasting colors. See gingerbreading. of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Doric and the Corinthian orders). When sightseeing in France you might find some of these terms useful. A rigid framework, as of wooden beams or metal bars, which supports a structure, such as a roof. An enclosed brick or stone oven built adjacent to a hearth in early Dutch Colonial houses. Architectural Styles in Manitoba. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. A variation of the Ionic order, and the youngest (dating from the 4th century B.C.E.) Columns may be plain or ornamental. This church type appears in Greece during the first half of the 10th century. Small, rectangular-shaped slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface, overlapping one another from top to bottom. Learn the basics of Revit for architectural design. hypar: short for hyperbolic paraboloid, a type of shell. If the apex or base is split, the pediment is described as broken. An exterior wall, or face, of a building. Arch. Wooden architectural ornament popular with American folk houses in the late-19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the Stick Style. See lattice-work. A structural element that provides support over an opening in a masonry wall (i.e., made of brick or stone). A half-cylindrical vault, semicircular or pointed in cross section; also called tunnel vault. A form of plaster made of mud, clay and moss used in poteaux-en-terre construction in French Colonial architecture, particularly in Louisiana. Terms that distinguish certain construction materials and techniques are presented next. See bay window. In Roman Doric, the column is slimmer than the Greek prototype, is unflutted, and stands on a low base; the capital is smaller. New York City Landmarks Designates Park Slope Expansion District. In a Doric frieze, the projecting block marked by vertical grooves (glyphs) between the rectangular areas known as metopes.​​. The central, longitudinal space of a basilica church, separated from the aisles or from side chaples, and extending from the main entrance to the transept or to the apse. The most richly embellished of the the orders (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian) developed by the Greeks, with a tall capital composed of a bell-shaped core (kalathoss) enveloped by layers of acanthus leaves terminating in the corner volutes, surmounted by concave-sided abacus. If raised over a square or polygonal base transitional squinches or pendentives must be inserted at the corners of the base to transform it into a near circle. In ancient Roman architecture, a large rectangular building used as a tribunal or for other public purposes and generally arranged with nave, aisles, and one or more apses. The sides meet at a ridge at the center of the roof. Columns may be plain or ornamental. On April 12, 2016 The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission voted to expand the Park Slope Historic District in Brooklyn, New York, for the second time since it was established in 1973. This is because a lot of the words in English were borrowed from French before and during the Renaissance period. A traditional ethos encompasses folk lore, music, art, dress, and building methods, among other things. Brickwork made up of rows of bricks of alternating colors, typically red and white. The reign of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which commenced upon the coronation of Queen Victoria on June 20, 1837 and concluded upon her death on January 22, 1901 (Victoria was also crowned the Empress of India on May 1, 1876). See patio. Even though in many areas of the empire, Byzantium has collapsed since 1204 (Frankish conquest), the term defines the years after the middle of the 15th century. Around the 3rd century it was used as a mausoleum because it symbolizes heaven. Masonry made entirely out of plinths (with the typical red color) is encountered in Constantinople. A framing motif consisting of an entablature and pediment supported by two columns. A small tower that pierces a roofline. A roof covered with tiles that are usually hollow and half-cylindrical in shape, and made out of clay. A hood molding is also referred to as a “drip molding.”. The rear slope often very nearly meets the ground. Basic Architectural Styles Everyone Should Know When you put together your wish list for your new home, your REALTOR will likely want to know what architectural style you’re looking for. A massive vertical support often rectangular in plan and therefore differing from a column, sometimes having its own capital and base. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. At times, gingerbreading could be superfluous and almost gaudy, with excessive frills and curlicues. Pertaining to a building surrounded by a row of columns on all sides. Architecture constructed in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603); Elizabethan architecture followed Tudor architecture, and preceded Jacobean architecture. They are small churches in regions around big urban centers. There are a number of important structural terms that are important for individuals interested in learning more about architecture. A classical style of architecture. A narrow window, sometimes hinged at the top, positioned over a doorway or larger window. Ever the imitators, but rarely the inventors, the ancient Romans grafted the volute scrolls of the Ionic order onto the capitals of the Corinthian order to result in the Composite Order. A wide, wrap-around covered porch lined with columns on one side, and common to French Colonial architecture of Louisiana. Being the style descriptor, the term was employed in as early as the mid 1950s. A saw with a small, thin blade used for cutting curves and curlicues in wooden boards. It is distinguished in circular, octagonal, hexagonal, three-conch and tetra-conch according to its form. In Part 1 of this two-part course we'll cover the fundamental concepts of architecture and the associated skills you'll need in Autodesk software to design your own buildings. This guide groups terms according to how we generally perceive a building, from the large to the small. A four-sided hipped roof featuring two slopes on each side, the lower slopes being very steep, almost vertical, and the upper slopes sometimes being so horizontal that they are not visible from the ground. Besides, one architectural origin of the basilica (since there are many disputes on its origin) are the Roman roads that had arcades supported by columns on their sides. An “S”-curve is itself made up of two curves: a concave curve in its lower half, and a convex curve in its upper half. Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. Architectural elements that have the appearance of having been sculpted. A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica and separated from it by columns or piers. Glossary of Architectural Terms Page 1 Abacus The abacus is the top part of a column capital. Blind arcade or arcading: the same applied to the wall surface. An open, roofed porch, usually enclosed on the outside by a railing or balustrade, and often wrapping around two or more (or all of the) sides of a building. Arch A window lighting an attic story, and often located in a cornice. Thus we start with some of the terms that help describe a building’s basic form: the plan and roof shape. A range of columns that supports a string of continuous arches or a horizontal entablature. A cornice molding is a cross between a cornice and a molding – a cornice is a crowning projection at a roof line, while a molding is a decorative strip of wood. A platform that projects from the wall of a building, and which is enclosed on its outer three sides by a balustrade, railing, or parapet. Average score for this quiz is 7 / 10. Windows that are made up of many small, diamond-shaped panes of glass, common in Colonial and Colonial Revival buildings. The celebrations from the mariological circle are those related to the Virgin Mary (The Nativity, The Presentation, The Annunciation, The Assumption). Statues of men and women dressed in ancient Grecian or Roman attire. The uppermost part of a column, usually shaped to articulate the joint with the lintel or arch supported; in Classical types, comprising an abacus, echinus, and other carved detail. Architects may also require understanding of sustainability, culture, law, business, materials, physics and other sciences. In ancient Rome, the Doric order was often replaced with the “Tuscan” order indigenous to the Italian peninsula; it consisted of an unfluted shaft, a simply molded capital, and a base. , commonly for public use. Regency Style Early 19th century architectural style (notably in London) associated with the British Prince Regent, later King George IV (1762-1830). of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Doric and the Ionic orders). They are churches of small dimensions consisted of a basic square space covered with a dome usually supported by four barrel-vaults. As local environments evolve over time, so too does vernacular architecture. The part of a building that rises above the building’s eaves. Components are uniquely identifiable, non-trivial, nearly independent devices, individuals, organizations, organisms, elements, building blocks, parts, or sub-assemblies that may be collected together to cooperate or to serve a common purpose. Pairs of solid or slatted window coverings, traditionally hinged to the exterior of a building to either side of a window, used to block light or wind from the interior of a building. A window frame that is hinged on one vertical side, and which swings open to either the inside or the outside of the building. Colonial revivalists of the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries looked back upon colonial dwellings, especially colonial kitchens, with nostalgia for earlier, pre-industrial times. A cupola is sometimes topped with a lantern. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed. The free-flowing floor plans of the Shingle and Prairie Styles are precursors to the modern floor plans of the 1930s onward, which emphasize a great deal of open space. style of architecture. A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman basilica or a Christian church. FULLY STUDDED: in reference to a type of construction; local term for vertical plank construction.Large vertical planks or studs that are rough sawn or planed are placed next to each other on a sill at the bottom and either extends to a plate at the top or continues to the roof. It may run along the upper portion of a wall just beneath a cornice or it may be that part of a classical entablature that lies between the architrave and cornice. Vernacular architecture responds to local methods of building construction, local climates, and local living needs and traditions. Before you can begin to use ORACLE, you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner. The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature; also the crowing horizontal molding of a building or wall. A turret is usually cylindrical, and is topped by a conical roof. When met in Greek churches (Ossios Loukas in Phocis), it is considered to be an influence from Constantinople. The horizontal intersection of two roof slopes at the top of a roof. A traditional community of Native Americans living in the southwestern United States. A vertical supporting element, similar to a small column. A crowning projection at a roof line, often with molding or other classical detail. The space inside the triangular piece is called the “tympanum,” and is often decorated. In the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries, a kitchen inspired by the kitchens of Colonial America. Ten architectural terms for you. Islamic architecture comprises the architectural styles of buildings associated with Islam.It encompasses both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day. The following are common architectural terms. Architecture constructed in England during the reigns of James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II (1603-1688); Jacobean architecture followed Elizabethan architecture, and preceded the English Renaissance architecture of Inigo Jones. the last phase of Gothic architecture c.1335-1530 characterized by vertical tracery; also called Perpendicular. A section of a building distinguished by vertical elements such as columns or pillars. Attic windows are common to ancient Greek and Greek Revival architecture. Stoas usually surrounded. Bricks formed out of mud or clay, and baked in a kiln or under the sun. Rough-edged brick, often of variegated colors. Casement windows often occur in pairs. Also known as a battlement. A passageway that cuts through the center of a building, from front to back, and off of which rooms open to the sides. This quiz solves that problem by presenting some of the very basic terms and definitions important to architects. https://uxplanet.org/information-architecture-basics-for-designers-b5d43df62e20 Column- an upright pillar that is often made from stone or concrete, which may be used to support an arch or roof. Dormer windows are sometimes crowned with pediments, and they often light attic sleeping rooms; “dormer” derives from “dormir,” French for “to sleep.”. Basic Definitions. 1. French doors are often referred to as “double doors.”. The widespread use in the mid-19th century of the jigsaw – a hand tool consisting of a handle attached to a small, thin blade – made gingerbread decorations readily available to home builders. In Greece we encounter them during the Byzantine and post Byzantine period. A decorative strip of wood running just below the eaves of a building. A wooden grid of boards overlaid atop an exterior surface. The metal fittings of a building, such as locks, latches, hinges, handles, and knobs. A Doric frieze often has continuous relief sculpture. 1. A smooth surface, usually rectangular (or sometimes circular) in shape and framed by a molding, and often featuring decorative, sculptural carving. In ancient Greece, the Doric order was the masculine, and the most preferred, order. Basic Architectural Abbreviations To Know. A colonnaded porch in front of the facade of a church, in early Christian architecture often serving as the fourth side of an atrium; also a transverse vestibule preceding the church nave and aisles. A triangular space formed by the raking cornices (sloping sides) and horizontal cornice of a gabled temple; also used above a door or window. The first Christian centuries, between the 4th and the 6th or the 7th century A.D. A convex, cushion like molding between the shaft and the abacus in the Doric or Tuscan order; in an Ionic capital, found beneath the volutes, generally in decorated form. ​​. Large, prominent masonry units outlining windows, doorways, segments, and corners of buildings. and plainest of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Ionic and the Corinthian orders). Easy thejazzkickazz Aug 15 04 7941 plays 2. genre of art and literature and especially architecture in reaction against principles and practices of established modernism. Pillars can be round or square in section, and are most often made of brick, stone, cement, or other masonry, although substantial wooden timbers can be formed into pillars. However, their disadvantage is that externally these churches look massive due to the big diameter of their dome. A wooden siding treatment in which wide, vertically oriented boards are separated by narrower strips of wood called “battens,” which form the joints between the boards. The inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed. There he would get undressed, get anointed with the sacred oil and recite the Symbol of the Faith in front of the bishop. Shapes demarcated upon masonry by scored lines. In Classical architecture, its parts are governed by proportional rules. See Traditional Ethos. Materials used can … Therefore, there was a built font in the center of the photisterion. A column is flattened, rectangular shape, projecting slightly form the face of the wall. One of the five Classical Orders, the Ionic is characterized by a scroll-shaped (voluted) capital element, the presence of dentils in the cornice, and a frieze that might contain continuous relief ornament. A garden structure built up over a path or narrow terrace, lined with evenly spaced columns or posts that support a wooden-framed roof without sheathing. A house associated with fairy tales of Germanic origin. A person in a wheelchair (people), in Boston, Massachusetts (places), with the backdrop of the famous 19th century Trinity Church reflected in the glass exterior of a 20th-century skyscraper, the John Hancock Tower (things). Architects tend to be overly specific and use words rarely uttered by regular human beings during the course of normal conversations. A large gilt statue of Athena once stood inside the temple. See bay window and bay. tracery: curvy ornament in the upper part of a Gothic. Tile roofs are common in many parts of the world, including the Mediterranean and the Southwestern United States. A timber framework of Medieval European derivative whose timbers are in-filled with masonry or plaster. Colloquially, a patio is a more informal space than a terrace. It would be very hard for you to learn much without first a thorough understanding of the essential architectural terms. Picturesque architecture and landscape architecture evolved in England in the 18th and 19th centuries, and influenced American architecture and landscapes in the 19th century; winding paths, asymmetrical compositions, rustic or exotic elements (see pagoda), and faux ruins were characteristic of picturesque architecture and landscapes. A supporting substructure for a column or statue. A Doric column is stout, with a fluted shaft (ideally, with 20 flutes), a plain capital, and no base. A mode of wall construction in French Colonial America in which tall posts are rammed into the ground, and the spaces between them are filled with mud plaster, also known as bousillage. Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. Pueblos consist of many adjacent houses made of adobe brick, although these houses are often, themselves, called pueblos. Like-a-picture, charming, quaint. A gable roof whose rear slope is longer than its front slope. Whether you’re a budding architect or just looking to build your own house and want to be up-to-date on the lingo, understanding all the different architectural drawing abbreviations can be important. Its proportions are far more variable than a Classical column. Long slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface in a horizontal fashion, overlapping one another from top to bottom. A plaster used as a coating for walls and ceilings, and often used for decoration; it is common to many parts of the world, particularly to the Mediterranean region and to the regions of the United States once colonized by Spain (i.e., Florida and California). An entrance porch with columns or pilasters and a roof, and often crowned by a triangular pediment. An arched window immediately flanked by two smaller, non-arched windows, popularized by Andrea Palladio in northern Italy in the 16th century, and frequently deployed by American architects working in the American Georgian and American Palladian styles in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Parthenon temple was built in honor of the Greek goddess Athena; it was ringed with 46 columns, and crowned by two pediments containing a wealth of sculptural detail. Arcade Passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. © 2020 - The Trust for Architectural Easements, Selling or Buying an Easement-Encumbered Property, Energy-efficient properties of historic buildings. A pavilion may also stand alone, separate from a larger building, or may be connected to a main building by a terrace or path. A sequence of alternating raised and lowered wall sections at the top of a high exterior wall or parapet. Balconet: A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window. The designation expands the district by approximately 300 buildings. tracery: curvy ornament in the upper part of a Gothic. How many do you know? Rooflines can be highly decorative, with balustrades, pediments, statuary, dormer windows, cross gables, etc. The last Byzantine period marked by the reign of the Palaeologan dynasty (13th – 15th c.). The term used to describe columns placed between the ends of two walls, commonly projecting from the ends of the cella of a small Greek Temple. A finely-grained, foliated rock, native to Pennsylvania, Vermont, and New York, and found in many colors. Adobe bricks are often bonded together with mud- or lime-mortar joints, and coats of lime-and-sand stucco often cover adobe walls to prevent them from eroding in the rain. The Corinthian order was utilized in ancient Greece almost exclusively for temple interiors, but became very prominent in ancient Rome, due to the ancient Romans’ taste for excessive ornamentation, particularly in architecture. They imitate characters of the Arabic alphabet. A small dome, or hexagonal or octagonal tower, located at the top of a building. The period after the end of the Byzantine Empire, namely after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. A gallerie connects interior rooms together, much like a hallway. Abacus may be a square slab or a molded shape. The space between adjacent columns in a colonnade, frequently determined by some multiple of the diameter of the column itself. Architecture: terms used in architecture: abutment or abuttal, architectonic, architectonics, astylar, bolster | Collins English Word Lists An Ionic column is tall and slender, with a fluted shaft of 24 flutes, a capital with prominent volute scrolls, and an elegantly molded base. A molding about a fireplace, often highly decorated. Do you know your architectural terms? An architectural term applied to a colonnade, in which the intercolumniation is alternately wide and narrow. A side wing, tower, or window bay that protrudes from a building. Architrave. window. An open space, usually open to the sky, enclosed by a building, often with an arcade or colonnade. Characteristic and elaborate church masonry style of the Helladic school. Eclecticism in architecture was very popular in both Victorian England and in the United States during the second half of the 19th century. Architecture is the planning, design and construction of buildings and other large structures. This is an architectural, product, interior and graphic design, which commonly defines mid 20 th century developments in modern architecture, design and urban development from around 1933 to 1965. Double doors are often referred to as “French doors”, due to their preponderance in French architecture. A railing consisting of a row of balusters supporting a rail. They are usually small, barrel-vaulted churches, single-nave or three-aisle. A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft. The first central plan building appeared as a hall in Roman baths. In GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or Architectural Fiberglass column capitals, the abacus may be cast as part of the capital or as a separate piece. The body and main sanctuary of a Classical temple, as distinct from its portico and other external parts; sometimes used synonymously with naos, the principal room of a temple where the cult statue is housed. This type originates from the Roman mausoleum and during the early Christian period it was mainly used in martyria. This architectural type was widely used during the early Christian period. These churches consist of a crossed square where a cross and the three-parted Holy Bema are inscribed. 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